Features and components of CNC machine tools

Time:2020-07-02     Author:中山誉胜【Original】   Read

CNC machine tool is an important tool for human production labor, but also an important symbol of the level of social development. It has experienced many years of development, from the initial manual operation, simple machining to the gradual development of semi-automation, automation, until today's latest machine tools - CNC machine tools. CNC machine tools using CNC technology for control, is a comprehensive application of computer technology, automatic control technology, precision measurement technology and machine tool design and other advanced technology, typical of mechatronics products, is the basis of modern manufacturing technology.

CNC machine tool with its adaptability, stable processing quality, high precision characteristics are widely used in machining. The main features are.

1, CNC machine tools can be processed to obtain higher precision and stable quality. It is in accordance with the provisions of the automatic processing procedures, there is no human interference factors, can get more than ordinary machine tools, higher precision and repeatability of machining accuracy.

2, processing high productivity. CNC machine tool spindle speed and feed changes in the range of large than ordinary machine tools, each process can be used to select the most favorable amount of cutting. CNC machine tool structure is rigid, allowing a large amount of powerful cutting cutting, which improves the cutting efficiency, saving maneuvering time. Its moving parts of the empty stroke speed of movement, workpiece clamping time is short, automatic tool change, the auxiliary time is greatly reduced compared to the average machine tool. In the machining center on a lathe processing, a machine tool to achieve a number of processes of continuous processing, the improvement of production efficiency is more obvious.

3、High degree of automation, can greatly reduce the labor intensity of workers.

4, the parts processing adaptability, flexibility and good.

5、Multi-use of one machine, with good economic efficiency.

6、Multi-coordinate linkage can be carried out, can process parts with complex shape.

7, can be processed manually difficult to complete or can not process the complex surface of the workpiece.

Composition of CNC machine tools.


1. Procedural carrier

The CNC machine operates according to the input workpiece machining program. The workpiece machining program contains all the information required for machining such as the relative trajectories of tools and workpieces on the machine, process parameters (feed, spindle speed, etc.) and auxiliary movements. The program carrier is the medium in which the workpiece machining program is stored. In the CNC lathe, the common program carriers are perforated paper tape, perforated card, magnetic tape and disk and so on.

2. Input device

The role of the input device is the program carrier within the processing of information read into the CNC system. According to different program carrier, there are different corresponding input device.

3.NC system

CNC system is the core of CNC machine tools, including microcomputers (said microprocessor), general-purpose input and output external devices (such as displays, keyboards, operating control panels, etc.) and the corresponding software.

4. Servo system

Servo system is the executive part of the CNC system. It receives instructions from the CNC system information, the power amplified, in strict accordance with the requirements of the instructions to drive the machine tool's moving parts, to complete the movement of instructions.

5. Position measurement feedback system

Position measurement feedback system is divided into two kinds of feedback of corner displacement and linear displacement of the executive part of CNC machine tools. Movement through the sensor part of the corner displacement or linear displacement will be converted into telecommunication signals, transmitted to the CNC system, and the command position for comparison, and by the CNC system to issue instructions to correct the resulting error.

6. Auxiliary control device

The main role of the auxiliary control device is to receive the output of the main movement of the CNC system commutation, speed, start and stop, the selection and exchange of tools, and other auxiliary device actions and other instruction signals, through the necessary compilation, logical discrimination, operation and power amplification after the direct drive of the corresponding electrical appliances, mechanical components driven machine tools, hydraulic and pneumatic auxiliary devices such as instructions to complete the specified actions.

7. Mechanical components of machine tools

The mechanical structure of CNC machine tools, in addition to the main movement system, feed system and auxiliary parts, such as hydraulic, pneumatic, cooling and lubrication parts and other general components, there are some special parts, such as storage tool magazine, automatic tool changer, automatic pallet changer and so on.




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